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Vanadium ( V )

Material Information

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Foil Lump Microfoil Powder Rod Single Crystal Sputtering Target Wire
Foil Lump Microfoil Powder Rod Single Crystal Sputtering Target Wire

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General Description:  

Vanadium was discovered in Mexico City in 1801 by A.M. del Rio, and was rediscovered in 1831 by N.G. Selfström in Falun, Sweden.

Vanadium is a soft, shiny, silvery metal which can be found in many different minerals, including some crude oils. It has an abundance of 160 ppm in the earth's crust and can be isolated after conversion to the pentoxide, V2O5, followed by direct reduction with aluminum. High purity metal can be obtained by the van Arkel process in which the iodide is decomposed on a hot filament under vacuum. Pure vanadium resists corrosion due to the formation of a protective oxide film on its surface; it is attacked by concentrated acids but not by fused alkalis.

The principal use for vanadium is as an alloying constituent, particularly in steels where it is introduced as ferrovanadium, an alloy of iron and vanadium. The addition of vanadium to steels removes occluded oxygen and nitrogen, thus improving the materials' strength. A typical vanadium content would be 0.5% max.

   

Atomic Properties

Atomic number 23
Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.136
Atomic weight ( amu ) 50.9415
Crystal structure Body centred cubic
Electronic structure Ar 3d3 4s2
Ionization potential No. eV
1 6.74
2 14.6
3 29.3
4 46.7
5 65.2
6 128
Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
50 0.25
51 99.75
Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.3
Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 5.06
Valences shown 2, 3, 4, 5

Electrical Properties

Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 19.6
Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0039
Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 5.40
Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) 0.63

Mechanical Properties

Material condition Soft Hard Polycrystalline
Bulk modulus ( GPa )     158
Hardness - Vickers 80 150
Izod toughness ( J m-1 ) 10-136
Poisson's ratio     0.365
Tensile modulus ( GPa )     127.6
Tensile strength ( MPa ) 260-585 530-730
Yield strength ( MPa ) 170-450 515-690

Physical Properties

Boiling point ( C ) 3380
Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 6.1
Melting point ( C ) 1890

Thermal Properties

Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 8.3
Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 8975
Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 345
Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 486
Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 30.7
All information and technical data are given as a guide only. Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information is correct, no warranty is given as to its completeness or accuracy.

Buy Vanadium on-line

We stock and supply the following standard forms:
Foil Lump Microfoil Powder Rod Single Crystal Sputtering Target Wire
Foil Lump Microfoil Powder Rod Single Crystal Sputtering Target Wire

Choose a form to search our on-line catalog  

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