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Silicon ( Si )

Material Information

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We stock and supply the following standard forms:
Lump Powder Rod Sheet Single Crystal Sphere Sputtering Target
Lump Powder Rod Sheet Single Crystal Sphere Sputtering Target

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General Description:  

Silicon was discovered in 1824 by J.J. Berzelius in Stockholm, Sweden.

After carbon, silcon is the most abundant element on earth, the abundance being 277,000 ppm. It is generally present as a silicate, these being found in many rocks, clays and soils. Silicon is obtained by reducing silica (sand, SiO2), with carbon. Further purification of the element for applications requiring high purity material (e.g. semi conductor devices) is achieved by zone refining, the resulting purity being better than 1:109. Silicon exists in two allotropic forms; brown silicon is a powder, whereas crystalline (metallic) silicon is grey and it is the latter which is more widely used. Bulk silicon is unreactive towards oxygen, water, acids (excluding HF), but is soluble in hot alkalis.

Silicon has many applications in various industries; for example, ultra high purity silicon is used in the semiconductor industry as a result of its semiconducting properties. Silicon is also used as an alloying element in the manufacture of certain alloys (e.g. ferrosilicon, an alloy of iron and silicon which is used to introduce silicon into steel and cast iron). It is also used in the manufacture of glass.

   

Atomic Properties

Atomic number 14
Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.117
Atomic weight ( amu ) 28.0855
Crystal structure Diamond
Electronic structure Ne 3s2 3p2
Ionization potential No. eV
1 8.15
2 16.3
3 33.5
4 45.1
5 167
6 205
Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
28 92.23
29 4.67
30 3.10
Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.2
Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.16
Valences shown 4

Electrical Properties

Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 23 x 101O
Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) -41.56

Mechanical Properties

Material condition Polycrystalline
Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 100
Hardness - Mohs 7.0
Poisson's ratio 0.42
Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 113

Physical Properties

Boiling point ( C ) 2355
Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 2.34
Melting point ( C ) 1410

Thermal Properties

Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 4.7-7.6
Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 13700
Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 1650
Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 703
Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 80-150
All information and technical data are given as a guide only. Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information is correct, no warranty is given as to its completeness or accuracy.

Buy Silicon on-line

We stock and supply the following standard forms:
Lump Powder Rod Sheet Single Crystal Sphere Sputtering Target
Lump Powder Rod Sheet Single Crystal Sphere Sputtering Target

Choose a form to search our on-line catalog  

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