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Lead ( Pb )

Material Information

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General Description:  

Lead has been known of and used since prehistoric times.

Lead is a soft, malleable and ductile metal. It has an abundance in the earth's crust of 14 ppm., the main source of the metal being the ore "galena", lead (II) sulfide (PbS) which occurs as grey cubic crystals, often in conjunction with "sphalerite", the equivalent sulfide of zinc.

Lead oxidises readily in moist air, is stable to oxygen and water, but dissolves in nitric acid. It is a poor electrical and thermal conductor but has reasonable corrosion resistance. Applications for this metal are wide and varied; for example, its relative imperviousness to radiation makes it ideal as radiation shielding material for use with X-ray equipment. Lead is also used in ceramic glazes, batteries, paints, as a fuel additive in petrol (lead tetraethyl) and as a prime constituent of soft solders. However, its use is now being discouraged as lead is now known to be detrimental to health, particularly to that of children.

   

Atomic Properties

Atomic number 82
Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.175
Atomic weight ( amu ) 207.2
Crystal structure Face centred cubic
Electronic structure Xe 4f14 5d1O 6s2 6p2
Ionization potential No. eV
1 7.42
2 15.03
3 31.9
4 42.3
5 68.8
Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
204 1.4
206 24.1
207 22.1
208 52.4
Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.0
Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.18
Valences shown 2, 4

Electrical Properties

Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 20.6
Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.0042
Superconductivity critical temperature ( K ) 7.196
Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +0.44

Mechanical Properties

Material condition Sand cast Polycrystalline
Bulk modulus ( GPa )   45.8
Hardness - Mohs 1.5
Poisson's ratio   0.44
Tensile modulus ( GPa )   16.1
Tensile strength ( MPa ) 12
Yield strength ( MPa ) 5.5

Physical Properties

Boiling point ( C ) 1740
Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 11.35
Melting point ( C ) 327.5

Thermal Properties

Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 29.0
Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 862
Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 23.2
Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 159
Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 35.3
All information and technical data are given as a guide only. Although every effort has been made to ensure that the information is correct, no warranty is given as to its completeness or accuracy.

Buy Lead on-line

We stock and supply the following standard forms:
Bar Foil Lump Microfoil Powder Rod Single Crystal Sputtering Target Tube
Bar Foil Lump Microfoil Powder Rod Single Crystal Sputtering Target Tube
Wire
Wire

Choose a form to search our on-line catalog  

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